Sources & Additional Learning Material


Are Lebanon’s media fanning the flags of sectarianism?

“Politics have become so divisive in Lebanon that the national media council chief urged the media in January to curb “tense rhetoric” that could instigate violence among the country’s religious sects […]. So what are the media up to? Are they guilty of fanning the flames?” – Arab Media and Society Website: http://www.arabmediasociety.com/?archive=6

Cochrane, Paul (2007). Lebanon’s Media Sectarianism. Arab Media & Society, 2(May). http://www.arabmediasociety.com/?article=206

Lebanon’s Media Battle

“Media were at the forefront of Lebanon’s bloodiest infighting since the civil war,relaying the heated words of politicians while beaming out propaganda thick and fast […]” -Arab Media and Society Website: http://www.arabmediasociety.com/?archive=13

Cochrane, Paul (2008). Lebanon’s Media Battle. Arab Media & Society, 6(Fall). http://www.arabmediasociety.com/?article=690

Media With a Mission: Why Fairness and Balance Are Not Priorities in Lebanon’s Journalistic Codes

Dabbous, Yasmine T. (2010). Media With a Mission: Why Fairness and Balance Are Not Priorities in Lebanon’s Journalistic Codes. International Journal of Communication, 4, 719–737.

The Re-feudalization of the Public Sphere: Lebanese Television News Coverage and the Lebanese Political Process

Dajani, Nabil (2006): The Re-feudalization of the Public Sphere: Lebanese Television News Coverage and the Lebanese Political Process. Transnational Broadcasting Studies, 16(Jun-Dec). http://tbsjournal.arabmediasociety.com/Dajani.html

The Lebanese Media Landscape

“As with the country’s political system, the Lebanese media has long been regarded as a unique phenomenon in the Middle East. Reflecting the pluralism and diversity of Lebanese society, the country’s media sector has enjoyed relative freedom of the press and was privatized early in its history. Yet despite, its apparent pluralism, “the disorientation and fragmentation” of the media system, as described by media scholar Nabil Dajani, has often served the interests of the political elite instead of catering to the public.”

El Richani, Sarah (2011). The Lebanese Media Landscape. http://muftah.org/the-lebanese-media-landscape/#.WMgPvHrwuAo

State control of television news in 1990s Lebanon

Kraidy, Marwan M. (1999). State control of television news in 1990s Lebanon. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 76(3), 485-498.

Hezbollah’s Media: Political History in outline

Lamloum, Olfa (2009). Hezbollah’s Media: Political History in outline. Global Media and Communication, 5, 353-367.

Imagining Identities: Television Advertising and the Reconciliation of the Lebanese Conflict

“Assem Nasr discusses how in Lebanon, the Arab country where identity is most contested, advertisers have constructed a new cosmopolitan and sterilized identity that  transcends the ideological and religious differences prevalent in the real world.” -Arab Media and Society Website:  http://www.arabmediasociety.com/?archive=17

Nasser, Assem (2010). Imagining Identities: Television Advertising and the Reconciliation of the Lebanese Conflict. Arab Media & Society, 10(Spring). http://www.arabmediasociety.com/?article=736

Defining the nation? Lebanese television and political elites, 1990 – 2005

Nötzold, Katharina (2009). Defining the nation? Lebanese television and political elites, 1990 – 2005. Berlin: Frank & Timme.