Sources & Additional Learning Material (Libya)

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German Resources:

Richter, C. (2015): Libyen: Von der Diktatur des Grünen Buchs zum postrevolutionären Chaos. In: Richter, Carola/ El Difraoui, Asiem (eds.): Arabische Medien. UVK: Konstanz, pp. 239-249.

Mattes, H. (1986). The development of the Libyan press 1969–86 [in German]. Communications, 12(3), 41–60.

Richter, C. (2004). The media system in Libya: Actors and developments [in German]. Hamburg: Deutsches Orient-Institut.

English Resources: 

Al-Zilitni, A. M. (1981). Mass media for literacy in Libya: A feasibility study (doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University

Alqudsi. (2012). Creative use of Social Media in the Revolutions of Tunisia, Egypt & Libya. The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 6(6), 147–158.

Biswas. (2019). Libya. In The SAGE International Encyclopedia of Mass Media and Society: J-N (pp. 951–954).

Democracy Reporting. (2019). Libya social media report. 

Dowson-Zeidan, N., Eaton, T., & Wespieser, K. (2014). After the revolution: Libyan and Tunisian media through the people’s eyes. BBC Media Action Research Dissemination Series.

Elareshi, & Gunter, B. (2012). Patterns of news media consumption among young people in Libya. Journal of African Media Studies, 4(2), 173–191.

Fhelboom, R. (2014, November 25). Journalism under siege. Correspondents. 

Issawi, Fatima (2013). Libya Media Transition: Heading to the Unknown. POLIS—Media and Communications, London School of Economics, “Arab Revolutions: Media Revolutions” Project.

Nsir. (2014). The perceptions of social media in Libya. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Melilli. (2021). My Home, in Libya. Pragda. 

Morris. (2014). Contextualizing the power of social media: Technology, communication and the Libya Crisis. First Monday.

Pollock, John (2011). The Voice of Libya. An inspiring story of citizen journalism. MIT Technology Review, September 5. Retrieved from

Richter, Carola (2013). Libyan Broadcasting under al-Qadhafi: The Politics of Pseudo-Liberalization. In Tourya Guaaybess (Ed.), National Broadcasting and State Policy in Arab Countries (pp. 150- 165). Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.

Richter, C. (2021). Libya: From Jamahirization to Post-Revolutionary Chaos. In: Arab Media Systems (ed. C. Richter and C. Kozman). Open Book Publishers, pp. 249-265.

Timmins, Jerry (2012). Free Speech, Free Press, Free Societies. How Media Regulation Can Help Create The Foundations For Prosperity And Peace In Transitional Countries. Legatum Institute

Wollenberg, A., & Richter, C. (2020). Political parallelism in transitional media systems: The case of Libya. International Journal of Communication, 14, 1173–93.

Wollenberg, Anja, & Pack, Jason (2013). Rebels with a pen: observations on the newly emerging media landscape in Libya. The Journal of North African Studies, 18(2), 191-210.

Wollenberg, Anja & Recker, Sven (Eds.) (2012). Reinventing the public sphere in Libya. Observations, portraits and commentary on a newly emerging media landscape. Berlin: MICT.








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