Sources & Additional Learning Material (Lebanon)

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Bou Zeid, Maria, and Jessica R El-Khoury (2020): “Challenges of Media Ethics Education in Lebanon in the Midst of Political and Economic Pressure.” Journalism & mass communication educator 75, no. 3, 275–290.

Cochrane, Paul (2007): Lebanon’s Media Sectarianism. Arab Media & Society 2.

Cochrane, Paul (2008): Lebanon’s Media Battle. Arab Media & Society 6.

Dabbous, Yasmine T. (2010): Media With a Mission: Why Fairness and Balance Are Not Priorities in Lebanon’s Journalistic Codes. International Journal of Communication 4, pp. 719–737.

Dajani, Nabil (2006): The Re-feudalization of the Public Sphere: Lebanese Television News Coverage and the Lebanese Political Process. Transnational Broadcasting Studies 16.

Dib, Amal (2019): “The Un(Civil) War: Media Framing and Memory Construction in Wartime and Postwar Lebanon”. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

El-Hibri, Hatim (2021): Visions of Beirut The Urban Life of Media Infrastructure / Hatim El-Hibri. Durham: Duke University Press.

El Richani, Sarah (2013): The Lebanese Broadcasting System: A Battle between Political Parallelism, Commercialization and De-facto Liberalism. In: Guaaybess, Tourya (Hg.): National Brodcasting and State Policy in Arab Countries. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 69-82.

El Richani, Sarah (2016): The Lebanese Media. Anatomy of a System in Perpetual Crisis. London: PalgraveMacmillan..

El-Richani, S. (2021). Lebanon: A Faltering Mesh of Political and Commercial Interests. In: Arab Media Systems (ed. C. Richter and C. Kozman). Open Book Publishers, pp. 1-18

Jurkiewicz, Sarah (2018): Blogging in Beirut: An Ethnography of a Digital Media Practice. Bielefeld: transcript Verlag.

Khalil, Joe F. (2017): Lebanon’s waste crisis: An exercise of participation rights. new media & society 19(5) S. 701–712.

Kraidy, Marwan M. (1999): State control of television news in 1990s Lebanon. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 76(3), pp. 485-498.

Lamloum, Olfa (2009): Hezbollah’s Media: Political History in outline. Global Media and Communication 5, pp. 353-367.

Matar, Dina & Dakhlallah, Farah (2006): What It Means to Be Shiite in Lebanon: Al Manar and the Imagined Community of Resistance. Westminster Papers in  Communication  and  Culture  3(2), pp . 22-40.

Melki, Jad (2014). The interplay of politics, economics and culture in news framing of Middle East wars. Media, War & Conflict, 7(2), pp. 165–186.

Melki, Jad P, and Sarah E Mallat. “Block Her Entry, Keep Her Down and Push Her Out: Gender Discrimination and Women Journalists in the Arab World.” Journalism studies (London, England) 17, no. 1 (2016): 57–79.

Melki, Jad, and Kozman, Claudia (2021): Selective exposure during uprisings: examining the public’s news consumption and sharing tendencies during the 2019 Lebanon protests. International Journal of Press Politics.

Melki, Jad, and Eveline Hitti (2021): “The Domestic Tethering of Lebanese and Arab Women Journalists and News Managers.” Journalism practice 15, no. 3, 288–307.

Nötzold, Katharina (2009): Defining the nation? Lebanese television and political elites, 1990 – 2005. Berlin: Frank & Timme.

Saud, Muhammad, Dima Bassam El Hariri, and Asia Ashfaq (2020): “The Role of Social Media in Promoting Political Participation: The Lebanon Experience.” Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik 33, no. 3, 248–255.

Voltmer, Katrin, Kjetil Selvik, and Jacob Høigilt. “Hybrid Media and Hybrid Politics: Contesting Informational Uncertainty in Lebanon and Tunisia.” The international journal of press/politics (2021): 194016122199926–.

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